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Những điều bạn cần biết về COVID-19

Phát hành vào ngày 20 tháng 2020 năm XNUMX

COVID-19 là gì?

New coronavirus refers to a new coronavirus strain that has never been found in humans before.  The virus that caused the outbreak of viral pneumonia in Wuhan in December 2019 was a new coronavirus, and the World Health Organization named the virus COVID-19.

Nguồn lây nhiễm coronavirus mới và đường lây truyền là gì?

The sources of infection seen so far are mainly pneumonia patients who have been infected with the new coronavirus, and some asymptomatic infections may also become the source of infection.  The virus can be transmitted from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets, and also through contact. At present, the possibility of fecal-oral transmission is not ruled out.  There is an incubation period after infection, which is usually 3-7 days, and the longest does not exceed 14 days.

What are the susceptible people and their main symptoms?  ‍

At present, the population is generally susceptible, but the elderly and those with underlying diseases are more severely infected, and children, infants and young children are also affected.  The symptoms after infection are mainly fever, fatigue, and dry cough. A few patients have symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, and diarrhea.  Some patients only show low fever, mild fatigue, etc., and there are no obvious symptoms of infection; patients with severe cases often have difficulty breathing after 1 week of infection, and severe cases can quickly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock,  Difficult to correct metabolic acidosis and coagulopathy, or even death.

However, at present, no effective drugs are available for prevention or treatment.  But many symptoms can be treated symptomatically, which can effectively reduce the patient's condition.  In addition, assistive care for infected people can be very effective.

Khả năng truyền dẫn của COVID-19 có mạnh không?

Theo phân tích của Trung tâm Kiểm soát và Phòng ngừa Dịch bệnh Trung Quốc, loại coronavirus mới có cường độ lây truyền nhất định. Trong trường hợp không có các biện pháp bảo vệ, về mặt lý thuyết, một bệnh nhân có thể truyền vi rút cho hai đến ba người.

Liên hệ thân thiết là gì?

In short, close contacts are those who have had close contact with a patient (suspected or confirmed case) (such as in the same vehicle and living in the same house as the patient), but without any protective measures (such as wearing a mask)  Etc.).  According to the requirements, close contacts need to be observed at home medical isolation without panic.  As a close contact, do not go to work, do not go out casually, and do a good job of observing your physical condition.  If you have abnormal clinical manifestations such as fever and cough, consult your doctor as soon as possible.

Based on current knowledge of pneumonitis infected with a new coronavirus, the maximum time from virus exposure to onset is 14 days, so we need to observe 14 days for close contacts.  After 14 days, the person can be judged uninfected if he does not develop the disease.

Làm thế nào để ngăn chặn COVID-19?

Các biện pháp sau đây cần được thực hiện để ngăn ngừa viêm phổi do nhiễm COVID-19:
 1. Tránh đến những khu vực có nhiều dịch bệnh.
 2. Avoid places with dense crowds.  Avoid closed, airless public places and places where many people gather, and wear a mask when going out (alone or in an open area, don't wear a mask).
 3. Strengthen window ventilation.  Every day at home, windows should be opened for ventilation for a period of time to enhance air circulation to effectively prevent respiratory infections.
 4. Pay attention to personal hygiene.  Wash your hands frequently and scrub with hand soap or soap and water for more than 20 seconds.
 5. Observe your doctor promptly.  If you have fever (especially a high fever), cough, shortness of breath, and other symptoms of respiratory infections, you should wear a mask to seek medical treatment in a timely manner.

Tôi nên đeo mặt nạ nào? 

For the general public, people in non-high epidemic areas can wear disposable medical masks. People in high epidemic areas should wear medical surgical masks or medical protective masks (N95 / KN95 masks). Cotton gauze masks are not recommended because they are effective against virus  The infection is not protective.  Suspect or confirmed patients should not wear a mask with a breathing valve, because the breathing valve cannot stop the wearer's droplets from spreading to the environment.

How long can a mask be used?  How to deal with it?

In the case of no contact with the patient or the suspected infection, you do not need to change the mask at any time and reuse it as appropriate.  If it is contaminated or sprayed with droplets, replace the mask immediately.  After more than 4 hours of use or moisture, the protective performance of the mask may be reduced.

The masks worn by the general population have no risk of transmission of the new coronavirus. After use, they are sealed in plastic bags and disposed of according to the requirements of domestic waste classification. Masks suspected of being used by patients and their caregivers are collected, treated, and disposed of according to medical waste.  Wash your hands after you finish your mask.

Thuốc khử trùng nhà hoặc phương pháp khử trùng nào

Có thể tiêu diệt COVID-19?

Khử trùng da: lau hoặc ngâm với cồn 75% và iodophor;
Khử trùng môi trường gia đình: 84 dung dịch khử trùng, bột tẩy trắng hoặc bột khử trùng có chứa clo khác, viên nén sủi bọt đều được chấp nhận. Sử dụng dung dịch được cấu hình để có nồng độ clo hữu hiệu ≥500mg / L để lau hoặc ngâm và khử trùng;
Tiệt trùng các sản phẩm chịu nhiệt: Có thể khử trùng bằng cách đun sôi trong 15 phút.
Điều đáng chú ý là thành phần hoạt chất của Dilu là p-chloroxylenol, không có tác dụng chống lại coronavirus mới, và chlorhexidine không thể bất hoạt hiệu quả virus.

Vật nuôi có lây lan COVID-19 không?

Không có bằng chứng cho thấy vật nuôi như mèo và chó có thể bị nhiễm COVID-19.

Knowing more about the COVID-19 can reduce our panic and deal with it in a more scientific and rational manner.  The ancients said that knowing oneself and knowing one another is invincible, and treating the epidemic is the same.  The more we know about the new coronavirus, the easier it will be to defeat it.