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Things you need to know about COVID-19

Pulished on Feb. 20, 2020

What is a COVID-19?

New coronavirus refers to a new coronavirus strain that has never been found in humans before.  The virus that caused the outbreak of viral pneumonia in Wuhan in December 2019 was a new coronavirus, and the World Health Organization named the virus COVID-19.

Source of infection of new coronavirus and what is the transmission route?

The sources of infection seen so far are mainly pneumonia patients who have been infected with the new coronavirus, and some asymptomatic infections may also become the source of infection.  The virus can be transmitted from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets, and also through contact. At present, the possibility of fecal-oral transmission is not ruled out.  There is an incubation period after infection, which is usually 3-7 days, and the longest does not exceed 14 days.

What are the susceptible people and their main symptoms?  ‍

At present, the population is generally susceptible, but the elderly and those with underlying diseases are more severely infected, and children, infants and young children are also affected.  The symptoms after infection are mainly fever, fatigue, and dry cough. A few patients have symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, and diarrhea.  Some patients only show low fever, mild fatigue, etc., and there are no obvious symptoms of infection; patients with severe cases often have difficulty breathing after 1 week of infection, and severe cases can quickly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock,  Difficult to correct metabolic acidosis and coagulopathy, or even death.

However, at present, no effective drugs are available for prevention or treatment.  But many symptoms can be treated symptomatically, which can effectively reduce the patient's condition.  In addition, assistive care for infected people can be very effective.

Is the transmission of the COVID-19 strong?

According to the analysis of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the new coronavirus has a certain transmission intensity. In the absence of protective measures, one patient can theoretically transmit the virus to two to three people.

What are close contacts?

In short, close contacts are those who have had close contact with a patient (suspected or confirmed case) (such as in the same vehicle and living in the same house as the patient), but without any protective measures (such as wearing a mask)  Etc.).  According to the requirements, close contacts need to be observed at home medical isolation without panic.  As a close contact, do not go to work, do not go out casually, and do a good job of observing your physical condition.  If you have abnormal clinical manifestations such as fever and cough, consult your doctor as soon as possible.

Based on current knowledge of pneumonitis infected with a new coronavirus, the maximum time from virus exposure to onset is 14 days, so we need to observe 14 days for close contacts.  After 14 days, the person can be judged uninfected if he does not develop the disease.

How to prevent COVID-19?

The following measures should be taken to prevent pneumonia from COVID-19 infection:
 1. Avoid going to high-endemic areas.
 2. Avoid places with dense crowds.  Avoid closed, airless public places and places where many people gather, and wear a mask when going out (alone or in an open area, don't wear a mask).
 3. Strengthen window ventilation.  Every day at home, windows should be opened for ventilation for a period of time to enhance air circulation to effectively prevent respiratory infections.
 4. Pay attention to personal hygiene.  Wash your hands frequently and scrub with hand soap or soap and water for more than 20 seconds.
 5. Observe your doctor promptly.  If you have fever (especially a high fever), cough, shortness of breath, and other symptoms of respiratory infections, you should wear a mask to seek medical treatment in a timely manner.

Which mask should I wear? 

For the general public, people in non-high epidemic areas can wear disposable medical masks. People in high epidemic areas should wear medical surgical masks or medical protective masks (N95 / KN95 masks). Cotton gauze masks are not recommended because they are effective against virus  The infection is not protective.  Suspect or confirmed patients should not wear a mask with a breathing valve, because the breathing valve cannot stop the wearer's droplets from spreading to the environment.

How long can a mask be used?  How to deal with it?

In the case of no contact with the patient or the suspected infection, you do not need to change the mask at any time and reuse it as appropriate.  If it is contaminated or sprayed with droplets, replace the mask immediately.  After more than 4 hours of use or moisture, the protective performance of the mask may be reduced.

The masks worn by the general population have no risk of transmission of the new coronavirus. After use, they are sealed in plastic bags and disposed of according to the requirements of domestic waste classification. Masks suspected of being used by patients and their caregivers are collected, treated, and disposed of according to medical waste.  Wash your hands after you finish your mask.

Which home disinfectants or disinfection methods

Can Kill COVID-19?

Skin disinfection: wipe or soak with 75% alcohol and iodophor;
Home environment disinfection: 84 disinfectant solution, bleach powder or other chlorine-containing disinfection powder, effervescent tablets are all acceptable. Use a solution configured to have an effective chlorine concentration ≥500mg / L to wipe or soak and disinfect;
Sterilization of heat-resistant articles: It can be sterilized by boiling for 15 minutes.
It is worth noting that the active ingredient of Dilu is p-chloroxylenol, which is not effective against the new coronavirus, and chlorhexidine cannot effectively inactivate the virus.

Will pets spread the COVID-19?

There is no evidence that pets such as cats and dogs can be infected with the COVID-19.

Knowing more about the COVID-19 can reduce our panic and deal with it in a more scientific and rational manner.  The ancients said that knowing oneself and knowing one another is invincible, and treating the epidemic is the same.  The more we know about the new coronavirus, the easier it will be to defeat it.